WHAT IS RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS?

'Renal' means kidney, and stenosis means 'narrowing'. Renal artery stenosis means that there is a narrowing of one or both of the arteries that supply blood to the kidneys. Stenosis of the renal arteries reduces the blood supply to the kidneys. It is a progressive condition that may cause kidney damage and renal hypertension. When the small amount of blood reaches the kidney, it signals that there is low blood pressure. Thus, the kidneys release hormones that increase the body's blood pressure.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS?

Most patients do not experience the symptoms until the disease progresses. The doctor diagnoses this condition in several patients while treating or diagnosing another condition. The patients may have the following symptoms:

  • Difficult to control high blood pressure.

  • Heart failure resistant to treatment.

  • Kidney function worsens while blood pressure treatment.

  • Abnormal kidney function symptoms

  • When a doctor places a stethoscope on the kidneys, he may hear the sound when the blood flows through narrowed arteries.

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS?

Renal artery stenosis is a type of peripheral artery disease. The majority of the cases, almost 80%, are due to plaque deposition in the renal arteries. The other causes of renal artery stenosis are vasculitis (swelling of the arteries), growth in the abdomen (results in excessive pressure on the renal artery), and fibromuscular dysplasia. This genetic condition results in the abnormal growth of muscles on the outer side of arteries. It pushes the inner wall of arteries resulting in narrowing.

WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS FOR RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS?

Several factors increase the risk for renal artery stenosis. These are:

  • Insulin resistance

  • High blood pressure

  • Smoking

  • Obesity or excessive weight

  • Unhealthy and inactive lifestyle

  • Diet rich in sodium and fat

  • High cholesterol level in blood

  • Family history of cardiovascular disease

  • Diabetes

  • Chronic kidney disease

  • Being female

  • Having a peripheral vascular disease or coronary artery disease

WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS OF RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS?

If not treated, renal artery stenosis progresses in the advanced stage and cause serious complications. Some of them are:

  • Persistent high blood pressure

  • Damage to kidney tissues that may result in chronic kidney disease or renal failure

  • Peripheral vascular disease in other parts, such as legs

  • Stroke that may be due to persistent high blood pressure

HOW DOES THE DOCTOR DIAGNOSE RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS?

The doctor may diagnose this condition through the following methods:

  • Physical examination: The doctor listens to the symptoms are examining the body based on the symptoms. The doctor also places a stethoscope on the kidney area to hear the blood flow sound. The doctor may also suggest a kidney function test to evaluate the health of the kidneys.

  • Imaging techniques: Imaging tests help in diagnosing renal artery stenosis. Doppler ultrasound assists doctors in evaluating vessels of the kidney. It also allows the doctor to determine any kidney blockage. The other techniques include CT scan, Magnetic resonance angiography, and renal arteriography.

WHAT ARE THE TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR RENAL ARTERY STENOSIS?

Some of the treatment options for renal artery stenosis are:

  • Medications: The doctor may prescribe medications to control the blood pressure. The drugs include diuretics, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers.

  • Procedures: In some patients, the doctor suggests restoring the blood flow to the kidney. The doctor may perform renal angioplasty and stenting or renal artery bypass surgery in such patients.

Source

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/renal-artery-stenosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20352777.

Tags

Risk factors-comorbidities,Metabolic and Mixed disorders,Renal Artery Stenosis