WHAT ARE INHERITED CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES?

Genes are an important component of the human cell. They control the structure and function of the cardiovascular system. This includes the development of the heart, the structure of vessels, and the functioning of the overall cardiovascular system. Any genetic variations in a gene may result in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is necessary that if one of the family members is diagnosed with inherited heart disease, the other family members should also have their heart checked even when they are not experiencing any symptoms. The cardiovascular system diseases that pass through the family are known as inherited cardiovascular diseases.

WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF INHERITED CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES?

Some of the inherited cardiovascular diseases are:

Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: There is a thickening of the heart muscle in this condition. In severe cases, the patient may die. This condition can develop in people of any age. In most cases, the thickening occurs in the wall that separates the right and left ventricle.

Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy: The patients with this condition have thin heart muscles. The heart is unable to efficiently pump the blood. This may cause heart failure. The symptoms of this condition include fatigue, irregular heartbeat, and shortness of breath. If left undiagnosed and untreated, it may also result in early death.

Familial Hypercholesterolemia: The patients with this inherited condition have a high risk of developing coronary artery disease. People with familial hypercholesterolemia have high LDL levels. As a result, there is a high risk of plaque accumulation in coronary arteries. Symptoms in such patients can occur at an early stage, and people with this condition may have a heart attack even at a younger age.

Marfan syndrome: Marfan syndrome affects the connective tissues of the body. There are serious effects of Marfan syndrome on the heart. The patients may have aortic damage that may result in bleeding and may also have mitral valve prolapse.

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT): This condition causes heart rhythm abnormalities, especially in children and young people. The symptoms included dizziness and palpitations. The regulation of calcium in the heart muscles cells are by the proteins. Therefore, any abnormality in these proteins may result in this condition.

Brugada syndrome: Heart muscles work through the shifting of calcium, sodium, and potassium ions. There is an abnormal flow of potassium and sodium ions in this condition. The patients, thus, experience fast and life-threatening heartbeats due to abnormal electrical conductivity.

Progressive cardiac conduction defect (PCCD): This inherited condition may result in a third-degree heart block. There is slow conduction of the electrical impulses inside the heart in progressive cardiac conduction defect. The electrical impulses generated from the area are different from the Sino-auricular node.

HOW DOES THE DOCTOR DIAGNOSE INHERITED CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES?

There are several techniques through which the doctor diagnoses inherited cardiovascular diseases. These techniques help the doctors determine the presence and severity of the disease. Then, based on the results, the doctor develops disease management strategies. These techniques are Cardiac catheterization, Echocardiogram (ECHO), Stress Test, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Computed tomography (CT scan), and Electrocardiogram (ECG).

WHAT ARE THE TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR INHERITED CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES?

The treatment depends upon the type of disease and symptoms of the patients. The doctor prescribes several medications that prevent the disease progression and reduce the risks of complications and death. These medications may include blood thinners, diuretics, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers. The doctor may also advise the patients to follow a healthy lifestyle, quit smoking, and limit the consumption of alcohol.

Source

https://www.bhf.org.uk/informationsupport/conditions/inherited-heart-conditions

Tags

Pathophysiology ,Genetics and Molecular biology,Genetic Variation