WHAT IS CARDIAC BYPASS SURGERY?

Blood, oxygen, and other nutrients reach the heart through coronary arteries. Patients with coronary artery diseases have an accumulation of plaque in these arteries. It narrows them, which results in a reduction of blood flow to the heart.  The doctor may advise cardiac bypass surgery to manage coronary artery disease. The doctor makes a new path for blood flow that bypasses the blocked passage in this procedure.  The doctor may take a small part of blood vessels from another body area, such as the legs, to make the new route.

WHEN DOES THE DOCTOR SUGGEST CARDIAC BYPASS SURGERY?

The doctor may recommend cardiac bypass surgery to the patients in the following cases:

  • The patient has chest pain which is severe and is due to narrowing of the arteries that supplies blood to the heart. It may occur even when the patient performs very light exercises or is even at rest.

  • There is a blockage in the vital arteries of the heart, such as the left main arteries, that prevent the heart from optimum functioning.

  • The patient has poor left ventricle function and blockage in at least one coronary artery.

  • The doctor cannot manage the patient with severe coronary artery blockage through angioplasty.

  • The patient had previously undergone angioplasty, but there is a re-narrowing of the artery.

HOW TO PREPARE FOR THE CARDIAC BYPASS SURGERY?

The patient needs to undergo a complete physical examination to ensure that the patient is in good health and is ready for surgery. The doctor will also provide detailed information about the procedure. The patients should ask any questions related to the surgery. The patients must also inform the doctor about the current medications and status of pregnancy. The patients must follow all the instructions of the doctor. They should not eat or drink at least 8-10 hours before the surgery.

HOW THE DOCTOR PERFORMS CARDIAC BYPASS SURGERY?

The complete process takes around 3 to 6 hours. The patient is under general anaesthesia during the procedure. The doctor inserts the breathing tube that assists the patient in breathing. If the surgery is with a heart-lung machine, it is known as on-pump coronary bypass surgery.

The doctor forms an incision in the chest and cuts the ribs to access the heart. The doctor stops the heart through medication and puts the body on a heart-lung machine to pump the body's oxygenated blood. The doctor then takes a healthy blood vessel from the leg or the chest wall. The doctor redirects the blood flow with this vessel by bypassing the blocked path.

WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS OF CARDIAC BYPASS SURGERY?

Like other major surgeries, cardiac bypass surgery also has several complications. Some of them are:

  • Abnormal heart rhythm

  • Wound infections

  • Problems in kidneys

  • Bleeding

  • Clot formation

  • Stroke

  • The problem in thinking or memory loss

  • Failure of the bypass surgery

  • Pneumonia

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Death

WHAT ARE THE OUTCOMES OF CARDIAC BYPASS SURGERY?

The success of bypass surgery depends upon several factors. These are age, the severity of the disease, and other underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or kidney problems. The overall success rate of bypass surgery is over 90%. After the surgery, most of the symptoms related to the disease, such as breathing difficulty, chest pain, and fatigue, disappears. Cardiac bypass surgery also reduces the risk of a heart attack.

Source

https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/coronary-bypass-surgery/about/pac-20384589

Tags

Therapeutic Modality ,Cardiovascular Surgery,Bypass