Introduction: Infective Endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the inner membrane of the heart or the valves as well as indwelling cardiac devices and implanted valves. IE is a serious morbidity that requires long inpatient treatment along with 4-6 weeks of Intravenous antibiotic therapy. Researchers have found a linear proportionality between IE related hospitalizations and use of opioids.

Aim: To study OUA IE hospitalization rates between various counties in the state of Kentucky between the years 2016-19. It was a cohort study in a population differing in urban-rural residency trends, co-morbidities, discharge disposition and demographics. Syringe Service Programs (SSP) were also compared.

Method: Discharge records of inpatients in 108 hospitals in Kentucky were studied for OUA IE hospitalizations.

Observations: Between the years 2016-19, 2,428 residents were hospitalized for OUA IE. Among them 65.2% were urban residents, 21.0% were rural, while 13.7% were from urban-adjacent areas. Hospitalization in urban areas increased from 251 to 472 during the study time, while in rural areas it increased from 90 in 2016 to 147 in 2019. There was a 50% increase rate in urban adjacent residents, as it increased from 65 in 2016 to 97 in 2019. The increase in these hospitalizations were found to be 85.8% in urban areas and 81.7% in rural areas. 

Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the rural and urban residents for hospitalizations due to OUA IE. In contrast to the national records, the cases of IE due to opioid use were found to be twice as high in Kentucky, as per this study. Use of SSPs were found to have a positive impact in reducing the harm among the affected population and should be further studied.


Intra-Dialytic Hypotension Market Study features the emerging trends in the Intra-Dialytic Hypotension (IDH) Industry. It enables CEOs, investors, manufacturers, and suppliers to get trading insights and improve their value by identifying opportunities and optimizing their business strategies. This study offers a complete coverage and assessment report of existing and potential markets, and competitiveness in changing market scenarios. The report displays the data in the form of charts, tables and figures in addition to the sales contact details of major players in the global market. A detailed overview of the competitive global Intra-Dialytic Hypotension landscape is accompanied by a SWOT analysis, which defines opportunities of growth and competition risks.

Segmentation chapters describe the evolution of various aspects of the market such as products, technology and applications. Based on application, the IDH market has segments such as Hospitals and Research Institutes, Pharmaceutical companies and academic institutes. And based on Product, the IDH market has an instrument segment and systems segment.

Company Profiles: This section has accurate and thorough information, including main business, gross margin, revenue, price, and other factors that govern the market development of the major players of the global IDH market. 

The section on regional segments elaborates on how regulatory structure at various places influences the market.

The market size and value of IDH and other submarkets are validated using both top-down and bottom-up approaches. Secondary sources and verified primary sources are used to identify the key players, percentage shares, splits and breakdowns. The market share of key players was derived from primary sources.

The major points covered in the report: 

  • Research methodology and sources used for collecting data.

  • Executive summary

  • Industry analysis, product insights, application insights, regional insights of the IDH market including a competitive landscape.

How Reports Globe is Different: The team of analysts and consultants at Reports Globe collects, segregates and publishes reports that are strictly validated to have minimum or zero deviations. A complete view of the market situation is presented with prospective opportunities that help make profits to the clients.



Disease Condition,Hypertension,Hypotension,Valvular heart disease,Infective Endocarditis



Disease Condition ,Hypertension,Valvular heart disease,Hypotension,Infective Endocarditis